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Information on Cement
The term cement as used today has derived from Latin word "caementum" meaning hewn stone. Although materials such as lime and gypsum have been used as binding material after the invention of fire, first reinforced concrete building was made in 1852. Ancient Greek and Romans realized hydraulic features of lime and pozzolana.
Developments about the quality and use of binding materials were performed in 18th century. John Smeaton, who undertook the construction of Eddystone Lighthouse building in England in 1750, is known as the first person to understand the chemical properties of lime. Next development occurred when the binder known as "Roman Cement" was obtained by Joseph Parker. In 1812, Louis Vicat fired argillaceous limestone up to 1200C in France and obtained hydraulic lime with a higher strength and it has been possible to adjust setting periods with different mineral additives.
In 1824, a mason named Joseph Aspdin in Leeds, England fired and grinded one portion of natural clay and 3 portions of limestone mixture and obtained the first cement with high strength and stability. Green gray of such product resembled the building stones in Portland island located on the south of England and therefore, Joseph Aspdin obtained a patent for his binder on 21.10.1824 under name "Portland Cement". Many science people including Thomas Edison made studies about cement in the following years.
Most cement plants today have advanced technologies that provide high energy saving and that are environment friendly. The quality, strength and stability of cements produced are much higher than those produced in the first times.